Thus, the purpose of accounting and financial reporting of the enterprise is to provide internal and external users for decision-making complete, truthful and biased information about the enterprise, its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The director of the enterprise is responsible for the organization of accounting and ensuring the recording of the facts of all business transactions in the primary documents, the preservation of processed documents, registers and reports.
For accounting at the company LLC «Climate Industry» uses a journal-order form of accounting.
Under the form of accounting is understood a certain system of interconnected accounting registers of the established form and content, which determine the sequence and methods of accounts. The main distinguishing features that determine the features of certain forms of accounting are: the appearance and construction of accounting registers, the relationship of registers of synthetic and analytical accounting, the sequence and technique of accounting.
Accounting registers are accounting documents (books, information, journals, etc.) intended for chronological, systematic or combined accumulation, grouping and generalization of information on business transactions contained in the primary documents accepted for accounting.
The essence of the journal-order (or journal) form of accounting is to use for the accumulation of accounting information special accounting registers: journals-orders * and ancillary information.
Logs are multi-register registers that are designed to display credit returns of one or more accounts on the credit of which the journal is opened, with the amount of credit turnover is indicated in the column in which the account corresponding to the main debit account.
The fact that magazines are built on a credit basis, according to individual synthetic accounts, simplifies the definition of credit turnover of accounts. The total debit turnover on a synthetic account is calculated as the sum of debit returns on this account from several journals. All journal entries are made in chronological order.
In accordance with the Methodological recommendations on the use of accounting registers, which are approved by the Order of the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine 29.12. 2001, journal-order (or journal) form of accounting contains the following accounting registers:
Journal No. 1 is used for cash accounting, is maintained on credit accounts 30, 31, 33.
Auxiliary information is kept for the journal # 1:
statement No. 1.1 on the debit of account 30; statement No. 1.2 on the debit of account 31; statement No. 1.3 on the debit of account 33.
Journal # 2 is used to account for long-term and short-term bank loans, this journal is maintained on credit accounts 50, 60;
Journal No. 3 is used for general accounting of settlements, long-term and short-term liabilities, is maintained on credit accounts 16, 17, 34, 36, 37, 38, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62 , 63, 64, 67, 68, 69.
Section I of the Journal No. 3 «Accounting for settlements for goods, works, services, other settlements and the reserve for doubtful debts» is conducted on credit accounts 16, 34, 36, 37, 38, 51, 62, 63, 68.
Section II of the Journal No. 3 «Accounting for settlements with the budget, accounting for long-term and current liabilities» is credited to accounts 17, 52, 53, 54, 55, 61, 64, 67, 69.
Auxiliary information is kept for the journal # 3:
statement No. 3.1 «Statement of analytical accounting of settlements with buyers and customers»; statement No. 3.2 «Statement of analytical accounting of settlements with various debtors»; statement No. 3.3 «Statement of analytical accounting of settlements with suppliers and contractors»; statement No. 3.4 «Statement of analytical accounting of issued and received promissory notes»; statement No. 3.5 «Statement of analytical accounting of calculations for other operations»; statement No. 3.6 «Statement of analytical accounting of calculations with the budget».
Journal No. 4 is used to account for non-current assets and financial investments, is maintained on credit accounts 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 35.
Section I of the Journal No. 4 «Accounting for fixed assets, other non-current tangible assets, intangible assets and depreciation of non-current assets» is credited to accounts 10, 11, 12, 13, 19.
Section II of the Journal No. 4 «Accounting for capital and financial investments and other non-current assets» is credited to accounts 14, 15, 18, 35.
Auxiliary information is kept for the journal # 4:
statement No. 4.1 «Statement of analytical accounting of capital investments»; statement No. 4.2 «Statement of analytical accounting of financial investments»; statement No. 4.3 «Statement of analytical accounting of intangible assets».
Logs No. 5, No. 5A are used for cost accounting.
Section I of Journals No. 5, No. 5A is maintained on the credit of accounts 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99.
Section II of Journals No. 5, No. 5A is maintained on the credit of accounts from Journals No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 6.
Section III of the Journal No. 5 is maintained on the credit of accounts 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 39, 123helpme.me 65, 66, 91.
Section III A of the Journal No. 5A is credited to accounts 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 39, 65, 66, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 91.
Section III B of the Journal No. 5A is maintained on the credit of accounts 20, 22, 39, 65, 66.
Section IV of Journals No. 5, No. 5A is kept according to analytical data to account 28.
Auxiliary statement No. 5.1 «Statement of analytical inventory accounting» is kept for Journals No. 5, No. 5A.
Journal No. 6 is used to record income and results of operations, is credited to accounts 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79. Analytical information on income is contained in section II «Analytical data on income».
Journal No. 7 is used to account for equity and collateral, is held on credit accounts 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49.
Auxiliary information is kept for the journal # 7:
statement No. 7.1 «Statement of analytical data of account 42 (Additional capital)»; statement № 7.2 «Statement of analytical data of account 44 (Retained earnings, uncovered losses)»; statement No. 7.3 «Statement of analytical data of account 47 (Ensuring subsequent expenses and payments)»; statement 8 «Statement of off-balance sheet accounting».
General ledger. In addition, this form of accounting provides for the maintenance of a register of deposited wages, accounting information and a transcript.
Accounting registers and account assignment of primary accounting documents are carried out using at least the code of the class of accounts and the code of the synthetic account.
The formation of analytical data is carried out by grouping the same economic content of the primary documents in the information, the results of which are transferred to the relevant journals. The section (detailing) of analytical information in the accounting registers of the enterprise may expand and change.
In cases when the required analytical detailing of indicators on objects of accounting on separate accounts (stocks, expenses, incomes, etc.) cannot be provided directly in journals, then preliminary data of primary documents in the necessary analytical section are grouped in auxiliary information ( transcripts), with whose results are recorded in journals. In this case, the analytical data in the accounting registers must be consistent with the data of synthetic accounting for the last day of the month.
Business transactions are reflected in the accounting registers at the time of receipt of primary documents or the results for the month, depending on the nature and content of transactions. The information is transferred to the accounting registers after checking the primary documents in form and content.
The final entries in the journals are compared with the data of the primary documents that were the basis for the entries, and with the information. The documents, the data of which are included in the accounting registers, indicate the numbers of the relevant accounting registers and the serial numbers of entries in them (line number). For documents whose data are reflected in the accounting registers as a whole, the register number and the record number are indicated on a separate sheet, which is attached to the bound documents.
In the accounting registers, the indicators of which are transferred to the General Ledger or to other accounting registers, make a corresponding mark in the appropriate line of the register.
The general scheme of organization of this form of accounting is presented in the figure below.
Figure 1. The scheme of organization of the journal form of accounting.
Clearing and unconditional corrections of text and digital data are not allowed in the accounting registers. Errors in the accounting registers are corrected by proofreading, ie incorrect text or numbers are crossed out and the correct text or numbers are crossed out above the crossed out one. Crossing out is done with one line so that you can read the corrected. Correction of the error must be stipulated by the inscription «corrected» and confirmed by the signatures of the persons who signed this register, indicating the date of correction. Errors in the accounting registers for the reporting year, which are identified after the entries of the accounting registers in the General Ledger, are corrected by reversal.
This method involves drawing up an Accounting Certificate in which the error (amount, correspondence of invoices) is entered in red ink, ballpoint pen paste, etc. or in parentheses, and the correct entry (amount, correspondence of invoices) is entered in ink, ballpoint pen paste, etc. dark color. Entering these data in the accounting register and the General Ledger in the month in which the error is detected, eliminates the incorrect entry and displays the correct amount and the corresponding correspondence of the accounts.
Correction of errors related to previous years is made by the Accounting Certificate, which provides the content of the error, the corresponding amount and correspondence of the accounts, which corrects the error. In the month of preparation of the accounting certificate, its data are recorded in the relevant accounting register and the General Ledger.
The general ledger is used to summarize the data of the journals, cross-check the accuracy of the records for individual accounts and the preparation of financial statements.